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profiling (n.)

by 1852 as a term in field engineering, verbal noun from profile (v.). By 1888 as "the drawing of profiles." The racial/ethnic stereotyping sense is attested from c. 1991, American English, probably on the notion of "fitting (someone) to a profile."

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Definitions of profiling from WordNet

profiling (n.)
recording a person's behavior and analyzing psychological characteristics in order to predict or assess their ability in a certain sphere or to identify a particular group of people;
From wordnet.princeton.edu