Words related to pro-
mid-15c., prodige, "a sign, portent, something extraordinary from which omens are drawn," from Old French prodige and directly from Latin prodigium "prophetic sign, omen, portent, prodigy," from pro "forth, before" (see pro-) + -igium, a suffix or word of unknown origin, perhaps from the same source as aio "I say" (see adage) or agere "to drive" (de Vaan), from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move").
Meaning "person or thing so extraordinary as to excite wonder or astonishment" is from 1620s; the specific meaning "child with exceptional abilities" is by 1650s. Related: Prodigial.
1640s, "a forerunner" (a sense now obsolete); by 1834 in pathology, "a prodromal symptom;" from French prodrome (16c.) and directly from Modern Latin prodromus, from Greek prodromos "a running forward, a sally, sudden attack," from pro "forward" (see pro-) + dromos "a running" (see dromedary). Related: Prodromata; prodromatic; prodromic; prodromous.
late 14c., proheme "brief introduction, preface, prelude" (of a narrative, book, etc.), from Old French proheme (14c., Modern French proème), from Latin prooemium, from Greek prooimion "prelude," to anything, especially music and poetry, from pro "before" (see pro-) + oimē "song, chant, saga, tale," which perhaps is related to oimos "way." Related: Proemial.
c. 1300, proffren, "present oneself, appear; hand over;" mid-14c., "to make an offer or proposal," from Anglo-French profrier (mid-13c.), Old French poroffrir (11c.), from por- "forth" (from Latin pro; see pro-) + offrir "to offer," from Latin offerre (see offer (v.)). Related: Proffered; proffering. As a noun, "an offer made, something proposed for acceptance by another," from late 14c.
1540s, "advancement, progress" (a sense now obsolete), probably from abstract noun suffix -cy + Latin proficientem (nominative proficiens), present participle of proficere "accomplish, make progress; be useful, do good; have success, profit," from pro "forward" (see pro-) + combining form of facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). The main modern sense of "degree of advancement attained in some branch of knowledge, art, science, etc." is from 1630s.
"well-versed in any business, art, science, etc.," 1580s, a back-formation from proficiency or else from Old French proficient (15c.), from Latin proficientem (nominative proficiens), present participle of proficere "to make progress, go forward, effect, accomplish, be useful," from pro "forward" (see pro-) + combining form of facere "to make, do" (from PIE root *dhe- "to set, put"). Related: Proficiently.
1520s, "overthrown, routed, defeated, conquered" (now obsolete in this sense), from Latin profligatus "destroyed, ruined, corrupt, abandoned, dissolute," past participle of profligare "to cast down, defeat, ruin," from pro "down, forth" (see pro-) + fligere "to strike" (see afflict).
The main modern meaning "recklessly extravagant" is attested by 1779, via the notion of "ruined in morals, abandoned to vice" (1640s, implied in a use of profligation, an obsolete word attested from mid-15c. but first in a sense of "elimination, banishment"). Related: Profligately. As a noun, "one who has lost all regard for good principles," from 1709.
late 14c., progenitour, "an ancestor in the direct line," from Anglo-French progenitour (mid-14c.), Old French progeniteur (14c.) and directly from Latin progenitor "ancestor, the founder of a family," agent noun from progenitus, past participle of progignere "beget," from pro "forth" (see pro-) + gignere "to produce, beget" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). Related: Progenitive; progenital; progenitorial. Fem. form progenitrix is from c. 1600; progenitress from 1610s.
early 14c., progenie, "children, offspring" (of humans or animals); late 14c., "descent, lineage, family, ancestry," from Old French progenie (13c.) and directly from Latin progenies "descendants, offspring, lineage, race, family," from stem of progignere "beget," from pro "forth" (see pro-) + gignere "to produce, beget" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget").