Words related to pro-


word-forming element meaning "before," from Old French pre- and Medieval Latin pre-, both from Latin prae (adverb and preposition) "before in time or place," from PIE *peri- (source also of Oscan prai, Umbrian pre, Sanskrit pare "thereupon," Greek parai "at," Gaulish are- "at, before," Lithuanian prie "at," Old Church Slavonic pri "at," Gothic faura, Old English fore "before"), extended form of root *per- (1) "forward," hence "beyond, in front of, before."

The Latin word was active in forming verbs. Also see prae-. Sometimes in Middle English muddled with words in pro- or per-.

prepense (adj.)

"planned beforehand, premeditated," 1702, short for prepensed, prepenst (mid-15c.), past-participle adjective from obsolete verb prepense "consider beforehand," originally purpense, from Old French pourpenser "to plan, meditate" (11c.), from pro "before" (see pro-) + penser "to think," from Latin pensare "weigh, consider," frequentative of pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh; pay" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin").

Usually in the legal phrase malice prepense (with French word order) "wrong or injury purposefully done or planned in advance" (see malice). This is attested from mid-15c. as malice prepensed. Related: Prepensive.

pro bono 

short for Medieval Latin pro bono publico "for the public good;" from pro (prep.) "on behalf of, for" (see pro-) + ablative of bonum "good" (see bene-).

pro forma 

also proforma, Latin, literally "for form's sake, by way of formality;" from pro (prep.) "on behalf of" (see pro-) + formā, ablative of forma (see form (n.)). A pro forma invoice is one sent to the purchaser in advance of the ordered goods.

pro rata 

"in proportion," from Medieval Latin pro rata (parte) "according to the calculated (share)," from pro "for, in accordance with" (see pro-) + rata, ablative singular of ratus, past participle of reri "to count, reckon" (see rate (n.)).

pro tanto 

Latin, literally "for so much; to such an extent," from pro "for, so far as" (see pro-) + ablative singular neuter of tantus "so much," from tam "so" (see tandem).

pro tempore 

"temporary," Latin, literally "for the time (being)," from pro "for" (see pro-) + ablative singular of tempus "time" (see temporal). Abbreviated form pro tem is attested by 1828.

proactive (adj.)

also pro-active, of persons or policies, as an opposition to reactive, "taking the initiative in a situation, anticipating events" as opposed to responding to them, 1921, from pro- + active. From 1933, in psychology (learning theory). Related: Proactively; proactiveness; proactivity.

proboscis (n.)

c. 1600, "elephant's trunk," from Latin proboscis (Pliny), from Greek proboskis "elephant's trunk," etymologically "means for taking food," from pro "forward" (see pro-) + boskein "to nourish, feed," from boskesthai "graze, be fed," from stem *bot- (source of botane "grass, fodder;" see botanic). Also extended to the long, flexible snouts of tapirs, insect parts, etc.

procaine (n.)

synthetic compound used as a local anesthetic, 1918, from pro- + cocaine.

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