Words related to private

*per- (1)

Proto-Indo-European root forming prepositions, etc., meaning "forward," and, by extension, "in front of, before, first, chief, toward, near, against," etc.

It forms all or part of: afford; approach; appropriate; approve; approximate; barbican; before; deprive; expropriate; far; first; for; for-; fore; fore-; forefather; foremost; former (adj.); forth; frame; frau; fret; Freya; fro; froward; from; furnish; furniture; further; galore; hysteron-proteron; impervious; improbity; impromptu; improve; palfrey; par (prep.); para- (1) "alongside, beyond; altered; contrary; irregular, abnormal;" paradise; pardon; paramount; paramour; parvenu; pellucid; per; per-; percent; percussion; perennial; perestroika; perfect; perfidy; perform; perfume; perfunctory; perhaps; peri-; perish; perjury; permanent; permeate; permit; pernicious; perpendicular; perpetual; perplex; persecute; persevere; perspective; perspire; persuasion; pertain; peruse; pervade; pervert; pierce; portray; postprandial; prae-; Prakrit; pre-; premier; presbyter; Presbyterian; preterite; pride; priest; primal; primary; primate; primavera; prime; primeval; primitive; primo; primogenitor; primogeniture; primordial; primus; prince; principal; principle; prior; pristine; private; privilege; privy; pro (n.2) "a consideration or argument in favor;" pro-; probably; probe; probity; problem; proceed; proclaim; prodigal; produce; profane; profess; profile; profit; profound; profuse; project; promise; prompt; prone; proof; proper; property; propinquity; prophet; prose; prostate; prosthesis; protagonist; Protean; protect; protein; Proterozoic; protest; proto-; protocol; proton; protoplasm; Protozoa; proud; prove; proverb; provide; provoke; prow; prowess; proximate; Purana; purchase; purdah; reciprocal; rapprochement; reproach; reprove; veneer.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit pari "around, about, through," parah "farther, remote, ulterior," pura "formerly, before," pra- "before, forward, forth;" Avestan pairi- "around," paro "before;" Hittite para "outside of," Greek peri "around, about, near, beyond," pera "across, beyond," paros "before," para "from beside, beyond," pro "before;" Latin pro "before, for, on behalf of, instead of," porro "forward," prae "before," per "through;" Old Church Slavonic pra-dedu "great-grandfather;" Russian pere- "through;" Lithuanian per "through;" Old Irish ire "farther," roar "enough;" Gothic faura "before," Old English fore (prep.) "before, in front of," (adv.) "before, previously," fram "forward, from," feor "to a great distance, long ago;" German vor "before, in front of;" Old Irish air- Gothic fair-, German ver-, Old English fer-, intensive prefixes.

deprivation (n.)

mid-15c., "removal from ecclesiastical office, rank, or position," from Medieval Latin deprivationem (nominative deprivatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of deprivare, from de- "entirely" (see de-) + Latin privare "to deprive, rob, strip" of anything; "to deliver from" anything (see private (adj.)). From 1530s as "act of depriving, a taking away." By 1889 as "state of being deprived."

deprive (v.)

mid-14c., depriven, "to take away; to divest, strip, bereave; divest of office," from Old French depriver, from Medieval Latin deprivare, from de- "entirely" (see de-) + Latin privare "to deprive, rob, strip" of anything; "to deliver from" anything (see private (adj.) ). From late 14c. as "hinder from possessing." Replaced Old English bedælan. Related: Deprived; depriving.

privacy (n.)

1590s, "a private or personal matter, a secret;" c. 1600 as "seclusion, state of being in retirement from company or the knowledge and observation of others," from private (adj.) + abstract noun suffix -cy. Meaning "state of freedom from intrusion or interference" is from 1814. Earlier was privatie (late 14c. as "secret, mystery;" c. 1400 as "a secret, secret deed; solitude, privacy"), from Old French privauté.

privateer (n.)

1660s, "private man of war, armed vessel owned and officered by private persons, usually acting under commission from the state," from private (adj.), probably on model of volunteer (n.), buccaneer. From 1670s as "one commanding or serving on a privateer." As a verb, 1660s (implied in privateering) "to cruise on a privateer, to seize or annoy an enemy's ships and commerce."

privation (n.)

late 14c., privacioun, "condition of being without (something);" mid-15c., "act of depriving, act of removing or destroying property;" from Old French privacion and directly from Latin privationem (nominative privatio) "a taking away," noun of action from past-participle stem of privare "to deprive, rob, strip" of anything; "to deliver from" anything (see private (adj.)). Broader meaning "state of being deprived, want of life's comforts or of some necessity" is attested from 1790.

privative (adj.)

late 14c., privatif, "characterized by absence of a quality, characterized by taking away or removal of something," from Latin privativus "denoting privation," in grammar, "negative," from privatus, past participle of privare "to deprive, rob, strip" of anything; "to deliver from" anything" (see private (adj.)).

In grammar, from 1580s as "expressing negation, changing the sense of a word from positive to negative" (as do the prefixes un-, an- (1), in- (1), a- (3), etc.). Related: Privatively.

privatization (n.)

"policy or process of making private as opposed to public," 1924, in reference to German economic policies in the crisis after World War I, from private (adj.) + -ization. Re-privatisation is attested by 1939.

Hugo Stinnes repeatedly demanded the privatization of the railroads, alleging that they could never function satisfactorily and profitably under bureaucratic administration. [United News article in Miami Herald, April 28, 1924]
privilege (n.)

mid-12c. "grant, commission" (recorded earlier in Old English, but as a Latin word), from Old French privilege "right, priority, privilege" (12c.) and directly from Latin privilegium "law applying to one person, bill of law in favor of or against an individual;" in the post-Augustine period "an ordinance in favor of an individual" (typically the exemption of one individual from the operation of a law), "privilege, prerogative," from privus "individual" (see private (adj.)) + lex (genitive legis) "law" (see legal (adj.)).

From c. 1200 as "power or prerogative associated with a certain social or religious position." Meaning "advantage granted, special right or favor granted to a person or group, a right, immunity, benefit, or advantage enjoyed by a person or body of persons beyond the common advantages of other individuals" is from mid-14c. in English. From late 14c. as "legal immunity or exemption."

Formerly of such things as an exemption or license granted by the Pope, or special immunity or advantage (as freedom of speech) granted to persons in authority or in office; in modern times, with general equality of all under the law, it is used of the basic rights common to all citizens (habeas corpus, voting, etc.).

Privilege is also more loosely used for any special advantage: as, the privilege of intimacy with people of noble character. Prerogative is a right of precedence, an exclusive privilege, an official right, a right indefeasible on account of one's character or position : as, the Stuart kings were continually asserting the royal prerogative, but parliament resisted any infringement upon its privileges. [Century Dictionary]

Middle English also had pravilege "an evil law or privilege" (late 14c.), from Medieval Latin pravilegium, a play on privilegium by substitution of pravus "wrong, bad."

privity (n.)

early 13c., "a thing kept hidden or secret," also "privacy, private life; secrecy," from Old French privité, priveté "privacy; a secret, private matter" (c. 1200), from prive "private," from Latin privus "set apart, belonging to oneself" (see private (adj.)).

From 1550s as "participation in the knowledge of something secret;" from 1520s as a legal term in feudal land tenure. Privities "private parts" is attested by late 14c.