Etymology
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postulate (v.)

1530s, "nominate to a church office," from Medieval Latin postulatus, past participle of postulare "to ask, demand; claim; require," probably formed from past participle of Latin poscere "ask urgently, demand," from *posk-to-, Italic inchoative of PIE root *prek- "to ask questions." The meaning in logic, "lay down as something which has to be assumed although it cannot be proved" dates from 1640s, from a sense in Medieval Latin.

postulate (n.)

1580s, "a request, demand, petition," from Latin postulātum "demand, request," properly "that which is requested," noun use of neuter past participle of postulare "to ask, demand; claim; require" (see postulate (v.)).

The sense in logic, "proposition proposed for acceptance without proof, something taken for granted," is from 1640s, from a sense in Medieval Latin. The meaning "self-evident practical proposition" is by 1751. The earlier noun in English was postulation "a petition, request" (c. 1400). Middle English also had postulate (adj.) "nominated to a bishopric or archbishopric" (mid-15c.).

updated on September 23, 2020

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Definitions of postulate from WordNet
1
postulate (v.)
maintain or assert;
Synonyms: contend
postulate (v.)
take as a given; assume as a postulate or axiom;
Synonyms: posit
postulate (v.)
require as useful, just, or proper;
This intervention does not postulate a patient's consent
Synonyms: necessitate / ask / need / require / take / involve / call for / demand
2
postulate (n.)
(logic) a proposition that is accepted as true in order to provide a basis for logical reasoning;
Synonyms: posit
From wordnet.princeton.edu, not affiliated with etymonline.