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posterior (adj.)

1530s, "later," from Latin posterior "after, later, behind," comparative of posterus "coming after, subsequent," from post "after" (see post-). Meaning "situated behind" is from 1630s.

posterior (n.)

"buttocks," euphemistic, 1610s, from posterior (adj.). Earlier it meant "those who come after, posterity" (1530s). Compare Lithuanian pasturas "the last, the hindmost," from pas "at, by."

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Definitions of posterior from WordNet
1
posterior (n.)
the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on;
Synonyms: buttocks / nates / arse / butt / backside / bum / buns / can / fundament / hindquarters / hind end / keister / prat / rear / rear end / rump / stern / seat / tail / tail end / tooshie / tush / bottom / behind / derriere / fanny / ass
posterior (n.)
a tooth situated at the back of the mouth;
Synonyms: back tooth
2
posterior (adj.)
coming at a subsequent time or stage;
the mood posterior to
Synonyms: later / ulterior
posterior (adj.)
located at or near or behind a part or near the end of a structure;
From wordnet.princeton.edu