Etymology
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posterior (adj.)

1530s, "later in time," from Latin posterior "after, later, behind," comparative of posterus "coming after, subsequent," from post "after" (see post-). Meaning "situated behind, later in position than another or others" is from 1630s. Related: Posterial.

posterior (n.)

"buttocks, the hinder parts of the body of a human or animal," euphemistic, 1610s, from posterior (adj.). Earlier it meant "those who come after, posterity" (1530s). Compare Lithuanian pasturas "the last, the hindmost," from pas "at, by." Middle English had partes posterialle "the buttocks" (early 15c.), from Latin posterioras with a change of suffix.

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Definitions of posterior
1
posterior (n.)
the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on;
Synonyms: buttocks / nates / arse / butt / backside / bum / buns / can / fundament / hindquarters / hind end / keister / prat / rear / rear end / rump / stern / seat / tail / tail end / tooshie / tush / bottom / behind / derriere / fanny / ass
posterior (n.)
a tooth situated at the back of the mouth;
Synonyms: back tooth
2
posterior (adj.)
coming at a subsequent time or stage;
the mood posterior to
Synonyms: later / ulterior
posterior (adj.)
located at or near or behind a part or near the end of a structure;
From wordnet.princeton.edu