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post (n.1)

"a timber set upright," from Old English post "pillar, doorpost," and Old French post "post, upright beam," both from Latin postis "door, post, doorpost," perhaps from por- "forth" (see pro-) + stare "to stand," from PIE root *sta- "to stand, make or be firm."

Similar compounds are Sanskrit prstham "back, roof, peak," Avestan parshti "back," Greek pastas "porch in front of a house, colonnade," Middle High German virst "ridepole," Lithuanian pirštas, Old Church Slavonic pristu "finger" (PIE *por-st-i-).

post (n.2)

"place when on duty," 1590s, from Middle French poste "place where one is stationed," also, "station for post horses" (16c.), from Italian posto "post, station," from Vulgar Latin *postum, from Latin positum, neuter past participle of ponere "to place, to put" (see position (n.)). Earliest sense in English was military; meaning "job, position" is attested 1690s.

post (n.3)

"mail system," c. 1500, "riders and horses posted at intervals," from post (n.2) on notion of riders and horses "posted" at intervals along a route to speed mail in relays, probably formed on model of Middle French poste in this sense (late 15c.). Meaning "system for carrying mail" is from 1660s.

post (v.1)

"to affix (a paper, etc.) to a post" (in a public place), hence, "to make known," 1630s, from post (n.1). Related: Posted; posting.

post (v.2)

in bookkeeping, "to transfer from a day book to a formal account," 1620s, from post (n.2) via a figurative sense of "carrying" by post horses. Related: Posted; posting.

post (v.3)

"to send through the postal system," 1837, from post (n.3). Earlier, "to travel with relays of horses" (1530s). Related: Posted; posting.

post (v.4)

"to put up bail money," 1781, from one of the nouns post, but which one is uncertain. Related: Posted; posting.

post (v.5)

"to station at a post," from post (n.2). Related: Posted; posting.

post (adv.)

1540s, "with post horses," hence, "rapidly;" especially in the phrase to ride post "go rapidly," from post (n.3).

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Definitions of post from WordNet
1
post (v.)
affix in a public place or for public notice;
post a warning
post (v.)
publicize with, or as if with, a poster;
I'll post the news on the bulletin board
post (v.)
assign to a post; put into a post;
The newspaper posted him in Timbuktu
post (v.)
assign to a station;
Synonyms: station / send / place
post (v.)
display, as of records in sports games;
post (v.)
enter on a public list;
post (v.)
transfer (entries) from one account book to another;
Synonyms: carry
post (v.)
ride Western style and bob up and down in the saddle in rhythm with a horse's trotting gait;
post (v.)
mark with a stake;
Synonyms: stake
post (v.)
place so as to be noticed;
post a warning at the dump
post a sign
Synonyms: put up
post (v.)
cause to be directed or transmitted to another place;
Synonyms: mail / send
post (v.)
mark or expose as infamous;
Synonyms: brand
2
post (n.)
the position where someone (as a guard or sentry) stands or is assigned to stand;
a soldier manned the entrance post
Synonyms: station
post (n.)
military installation at which a body of troops is stationed;
this military post provides an important source of income for the town nearby
there is an officer's club on the post
Synonyms: military post
post (n.)
a job in an organization;
he occupied a post in the treasury
Synonyms: position / berth / office / spot / billet / place / situation
post (n.)
an upright consisting of a piece of timber or metal fixed firmly in an upright position;
he set a row of posts in the ground and strung barbwire between them
post (n.)
any particular collection of letters or packages that is delivered;
she was opening her post
is there any post for me?
Synonyms: mail
post (n.)
a pole or stake set up to mark something (as the start or end of a race track);
a pair of posts marked the goal
Synonyms: stake
post (n.)
the system whereby messages are transmitted via the post office;
in England they call mail `the post'
Synonyms: mail / mail service / postal service
post (n.)
the delivery and collection of letters and packages;
if you hurry you'll catch the post
it came by the first post
3
Post (n.)
United States aviator who in 1933 made the first solo flight around the world (1899-1935);
Synonyms: Wiley Post
Post (n.)
United States female author who wrote a book and a syndicated newspaper column on etiquette (1872-1960);
Synonyms: Emily Post / Emily Price Post
Post (n.)
United States manufacturer of breakfast cereals and Postum (1854-1914);
Synonyms: C. W. Post / Charles William Post
From wordnet.princeton.edu