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position (n.)

late 14c., posicioun, as a term in logic and philosophy, "statement of belief, the laying down of a proposition or thesis," from Old French posicion "position, supposition" (Modern French position) and directly from Latin positionem (nominative positio) "act or fact of placing, situation, position, affirmation," noun of state from past-participle stem of ponere "put, place." Watkins tentatively identifies this as from PIE *po-s(i)nere, from *apo- "off, away" (see apo-) + *sinere "to leave, let" (see site). But de Vaan identifies it as from Proto-Italic *posine-, from PIE *tkine- "to build, live," from root *tkei- "to settle, dwell, be home" (see home (n.)).

The meaning "place occupied by a person or thing" especially a proper or appropriate place, is from 1540s; hence "status, standing, social rank" (1832); "official station, employment" (1890). The meaning "manner in which some physical thing is arranged or posed, aggregate of the spatial relations of a body or figure to other such bodies or figures" is recorded by 1703; specifically in reference to dance steps, 1778, to sexual intercourse, 1883. Military sense of "place occupied or to be occupied" is by 1781.

position (v.)

1670s, "to assume a position" (intransitive), from position (n.). Transitive sense of "place or put in relation to other objects," now the usual meaning, is recorded from 1817. Related: Positioned; positioning.

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Definitions of position from WordNet
1
position (n.)
the particular portion of space occupied by something;
Synonyms: place
position (n.)
a point occupied by troops for tactical reasons;
Synonyms: military position
position (n.)
a way of regarding situations or topics etc.;
Synonyms: view / perspective
position (n.)
the arrangement of the body and its limbs;
Synonyms: posture / attitude
position (n.)
the relative position or standing of things or especially persons in a society;
atheists do not enjoy a favorable position in American life
Synonyms: status
position (n.)
a job in an organization;
Synonyms: post / berth / office / spot / billet / place / situation
position (n.)
the spatial property of a place where or way in which something is situated;
the position of the hands on the clock
Synonyms: spatial relation
position (n.)
the appropriate or customary location;
the cars were in position
position (n.)
(in team sports) the role assigned to an individual player;
what position does he play?
position (n.)
the act of putting something in a certain place;
Synonyms: placement / location / locating / positioning / emplacement
position (n.)
a condition or position in which you find yourself;
the unpleasant situation (or position) of having to choose between two evils
Synonyms: situation
position (n.)
a rationalized mental attitude;
Synonyms: stance / posture
position (n.)
an opinion that is held in opposition to another in an argument or dispute;
Synonyms: side
position (n.)
an item on a list or in a sequence;
moved from third to fifth position
Synonyms: place
position (n.)
the post or function properly or customarily occupied or served by another;
Synonyms: stead / place / lieu
position (n.)
the act of positing; an assumption taken as a postulate or axiom;
2
position (v.)
cause to be in an appropriate place, state, or relation;
position (v.)
put into a certain place or abstract location;
Synonyms: put / set / place / pose / lay
From wordnet.princeton.edu