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population (n.)

1610s, from Late Latin populationem (nominative populatio) "a people; a multitude," as if from Latin populus "a people" (see people (n.)). Population explosion is first attested 1953.

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Definitions of population from WordNet

population (n.)
the people who inhabit a territory or state;
the population seemed to be well fed and clothed
population (n.)
a group of organisms of the same species inhabiting a given area;
they hired hunters to keep down the deer population
population (n.)
(statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which samples can be drawn;
it is an estimate of the mean of the population
Synonyms: universe
population (n.)
the number of inhabitants (either the total number or the number of a particular race or class) in a given place (country or city etc.);
the African-American population of Salt Lake City has been increasing
people come and go, but the population of this town has remained approximately constant for the past decade
population (n.)
the act of populating (causing to live in a place);
he deplored the population of colonies with convicted criminals
From wordnet.princeton.edu