polygraph (n.)

1794, "mechanical device for making multiple copies of something written or drawn," from Greek polygraphos "writing much," from polys "much, many" (from PIE root *pele- (1) "to fill") + graphos "writing," from graphein "to write" (see -graphy).

Meaning "instrument for recording several pulsations of the body at the same time" is 1871; first used as a lie detector 1921. Related: Polygraphy (1590s); polygraphic (1771).