Etymology
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polish (v.)

early 14c., polishen "make smooth or glossy" by friction or coating (of the surface of wood, stone, metal, etc.), from Old French poliss-, present participle stem of polir (12c.) "to polish, decorate, see to one's appearance," from Latin polire "to polish, make smooth; decorate, embellish;" figuratively "refine, improve," said by Watkins to be from PIE root *pel- (5) "to thrust, strike, drive," via the notion of fulling cloth, but there are other guesses.

The figurative sense of "free from coarseness, to refine" in English is recorded from mid-14c. Compare polite. Related: Polished; polishing. To polish off "finish" is by 1829 in pugilism slang, probably from the application of a coat of polish as the final step in a piece of work.

polish (n.)

1590s, originally figurative, "absence of coarseness, elegance or style of manners," from polish (v.). From 1704 as "smoothness of surface;" 1705 as "act of polishing;" 1819 as "substance used in polishing."

Polish (adj.)

"of or pertaining to Poland or its natives or inhabitants," 1670s, from Pole + -ish. Related: Polishness. Polish-American is attested by 1883 in the Chicago newspapers. An earlier adjective was Polonian (1580s), from the Latin form of the name.

updated on August 15, 2020

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Definitions of polish from WordNet
1
polish (v.)
make (a surface) shine;
polish my shoes
Synonyms: smooth / smoothen / shine
polish (v.)
improve or perfect by pruning or polishing;
Synonyms: refine / fine-tune / down
polish (v.)
bring to a highly developed, finished, or refined state;
polish your social manners
Synonyms: round / round off / polish up / brush up
2
polish (n.)
the property of being smooth and shiny;
Synonyms: gloss / glossiness / burnish
polish (n.)
a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality; "almost an inspiration which gives to all work that finish which is almost art"--Joseph Conrad;
they performed with great polish
polish (n.)
a preparation used in polishing;
3
Polish (n.)
the Slavic language of Poland;
4
Polish (adj.)
of or relating to Poland or its people or culture;
From wordnet.princeton.edu, not affiliated with etymonline.