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plumb (n.)

"lead hung on a string to show the vertical line," early 14c., from Old French *plombe, plomee "sounding lead," and directly from Late Latin *plumba, originally plural of Latin plumbum "lead (the metal), lead ball; pipe; pencil," a word of unknown origin, related to Greek molybdos "lead" (dialectal bolimos) and perhaps from an extinct Mediterranean language, perhaps Iberian.

plumb (v.)

early 15c., "to sink" (like lead), from plumb (n.). Meaning "take soundings with a plumb" is first recorded 1560s; figurative sense of "to get to the bottom of" is from 1590s. Related: Plumbed; plumbing.

plumb (adj.)

"perpendicular, vertical," mid-15c., from plumb (n.). The notion of "exact measurement" led to extended sense of "completely, downright" (1748), sometimes spelled plump, plum, or plunk.

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Definitions of plumb from WordNet
1
plumb (v.)
measure the depth of something;
plumb (v.)
weight with lead;
plumb (v.)
examine thoroughly and in great depth;
plumb (v.)
adjust with a plumb line so as to make vertical;
2
plumb (adv.)
conforming to the direction of a plumb line;
plumb (adv.)
exactly;
fell plumb in the middle of the puddle
Synonyms: plum
plumb (adv.)
completely; used as intensifiers;
I'm plumb (or plum) tuckered out
Synonyms: clean / plum
3
plumb (n.)
the metal bob of a plumb line;
Synonyms: plumb bob / plummet
4
plumb (adj.)
exactly vertical;
the tower of Pisa is far out of plumb
From wordnet.princeton.edu