1835, imitative of the sound of a bullet striking something sharply. Meaning "short, high-pitched electronic pulse" is attested from 1943. As a verb from 1855; in computer sense is from at least 1981. Related: Pinged; pinging.
The bugs pinged the lamp shade
the car pinged when I put in low-octane gasoline
the bullet pinged when they struck the car
I'll ping my accountant--April 15 is nearing
ping your machine in the office