Etymology
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pin (n.)

late Old English pinn "peg or bolt of wood or metal used to hold things in place or fasten them together," from Proto-Germanic *penn- "jutting point or peak" (source also of Old Saxon pin "peg," Old Norse pinni "peg, tack," Middle Dutch pin "pin, peg," Old High German pfinn, German Pinne "pin, tack") from Latin pinna "a feather, plume;" in plural "a wing;" also "fin, scoop of a water wheel;" also "a pinnacle; a promontory, cape; battlement" (as in Luke iv.9 in Vulgate) and so applied to "points" of various sorts, from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly."

De Vaan and Watkins say Latin pinna is a derivative of penna, literally "feather" (see pen (n.1)); older theories regarded pinna as a separate word from a root meaning "sharp point." The Latin word also was borrowed in Celtic: Irish pinne "a pin, peg, spigot;" Welsh pin "a pin, pen."

The transition from 'feather' to 'pin' (a slender or pointed instrument) appears to have been through 'pen,' a quill, to ' pen,' a style or stylus, hence any slender or pointed instrument [Century Dictionary]

As a part of a lock or latch, c. 1200; as a control for a mechanical device, late 14c. The modern slender wire pin, used as a fastener for clothing or in sewing, is attested by this name by late 14c., perhaps late 13c. Transferred sense of "leg" is recorded from 1520s and holds the older sense. The meaning "wooden stick or club set up to be knocked down in a game" (skittles, bowling, etc.) is by 1570s.

Pin-money "annual sum allotted to a woman for personal expenses on dress, etc." is attested from 1620s. Pins and needles "tingling sensation" is from 1810. The sound of a pin dropping as a type of something all but silent is from 1775.

PIN

acronym for personal identification number, 1981; from the first it has been used with a redundant number.

pin (v.)

mid-14c., pinnen, "to affix with a pin," from pin (n.). Figurative uses, on the notion of "seize and hold fast in the same spot or position" are from 1570s. Related: Pinned; pinning. Sense of "to hold someone or something down so he or it cannot escape" is attested from 1740. In U.S. colleges, as a reference to the bestowal of a fraternity pin on a female student as an indication of a relationship, it is attested by 1938. Phrase pin down "define" is from 1951.

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Definitions of pin
1
pin (n.)
a piece of jewelry that is pinned onto the wearer's garment;
pin (n.)
when a wrestler's shoulders are forced to the mat;
Synonyms: fall
pin (n.)
small markers inserted into a surface to mark scores or define locations etc.;
Synonyms: peg
pin (n.)
a number you choose and use to gain access to various accounts;
Synonyms: personal identification number / PIN number
pin (n.)
informal terms for the leg;
Synonyms: peg / stick
pin (n.)
axis consisting of a short shaft that supports something that turns;
Synonyms: pivot
pin (n.)
cylindrical tumblers consisting of two parts that are held in place by springs; when they are aligned with a key the bolt can be thrown;
Synonyms: pin tumbler
pin (n.)
flagpole used to mark the position of the hole on a golf green;
Synonyms: flag
pin (n.)
a small slender (often pointed) piece of wood or metal used to support or fasten or attach things;
pin (n.)
a holder attached to the gunwale of a boat that holds the oar in place and acts as a fulcrum for rowing;
Synonyms: peg / thole / tholepin / rowlock / oarlock
pin (n.)
a club-shaped wooden object used in bowling; set up in triangular groups of ten as the target;
Synonyms: bowling pin
2
pin (v.)
to hold fast or prevent from moving;
The child was pinned under the fallen tree
Synonyms: trap / immobilize / immobilise
pin (v.)
attach or fasten with pins;
pin the needle to the shirt
pin (v.)
pierce with a pin;
pin down the butterfly
pin (v.)
(chess) immobilize a piece;
From wordnet.princeton.edu