Etymology
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Words related to phonograph

phono- 

word-forming element meaning "sound, voice," from Greek phōno-, combining form of phōnē "voice, sound" (from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say").

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-graph 
modern word-forming element meaning "instrument for recording; that which writes, marks, or describes; something written," from Greek -graphos "-writing, -writer" (as in autographos "written with one's own hand"), from graphe "writing, the art of writing, a writing," from graphein "to write, express by written characters," earlier "to draw, represent by lines drawn" (see -graphy). Adopted widely (Dutch -graaf, German -graph, French -graphe, Spanish -grafo). Related: -grapher; -graphic; -graphical.
phonogram (n.)

1845, "a written symbol or graphic character representing the sound of the human voice," from phono- "sound, voice" + -gram "a writing, recording." From 1879 as "a sound recording produced by a phonograph." Related: Phonogramic.

gramophone (n.)

"machine for recording and reproducing sounds by needle-tracing on some solid material," 1887, trademark by German-born U.S. inventor Emil Berliner (1851-1929), an inversion of phonogram (1884) "the tracing made by a phonograph needle," which was coined from Greek phōnē "voice, sound," from PIE root *bha- (2) "to speak, tell, say" + gramma "something written" (see -gram).

Berliner's machine used a flat disc and succeeded with the public. Edison's phonograph used a cylinder and did not. Despised by linguistic purists (Weekley calls gramophone "An atrocity formed by reversing phonogram") who tried at least to amend it to grammophone, it was replaced by record player after mid-1950s. There also was a graphophone (1886).