Etymology
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partition (n.)

c. 1400, particioun, "division into shares, distinction," from Old French particion (12c.), from Latin partitionem (nominative partitio) "a sharing, division, partition, distribution; method of dividing," from past participle stem of partire "to part, divide," from pars "a part, piece, a share" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot"). Sense of "that which separates" is recorded from late 15c. Meaning "act of parting or dividing, state of being divided" is from c. 1500.

partition (v.)

1741, "divide into shares," from partition (n.). Meaning "divide by walls or partitions" is from 1832. Related: Partitioned; partitioning.

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Definitions of partition
1
partition (n.)
a vertical structure that divides or separates (as a wall divides one room from another);
Synonyms: divider
partition (n.)
(computer science) the part of a hard disk that is dedicated to a particular operating system or application and accessed as a single unit;
partition (n.)
(anatomy) a structure that separates areas in an organism;
partition (n.)
the act of dividing or partitioning; separation by the creation of a boundary that divides or keeps apart;
Synonyms: division / partitioning / segmentation / sectionalization / sectionalisation
2
partition (v.)
divide into parts, pieces, or sections;
The Arab peninsula was partitioned by the British
Synonyms: partition off
partition (v.)
separate or apportion into sections;
partition a room off
Synonyms: zone
From wordnet.princeton.edu