particular (adj.)

late 14c., "pertaining to or affecting a single thing or person; pertaining to some and not to all," from Old French particuler (14c., Modern French particulier) and directly from Late Latin particularis "of a part, concerning a small part," from Latin particula "little bit or part, grain, jot," diminutive of pars (genitive partis) "a part, piece, division" (from PIE root *pere- (2) "to grant, allot"). Meaning "peculiar, singular, standing out from what is usual or ordinary" is by late 15c. Sense of "precise, fastidious, exacting, attentive to details" is by 1814.

particular (n.)

late 14c., particuler, "a part or section of a whole, an individual circumstance, feature, or factor; an organ or part of the body," from particular (adj.). Meaning "a single instance or matter" is from 1530s; particulars "small details of statement" is from c. 1600.

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Definitions of particular from WordNet
particular (adj.)
surpassing what is common or usual or expected;
a matter of particular and unusual importance
particular (adj.)
separate and distinct from others of the same group or category;
a man who wishes to make a particular woman fall in love with him
interested in one particular artist
particular (adj.)
unique or specific to a person or thing or category;
has a particular preference for Chinese art
the particular demands of the job
Synonyms: peculiar / special
particular (adj.)
providing specific details or circumstances;
a particular description of the room
particular (adj.)
first and most important;
she gets special (or particular) satisfaction from her volunteer work
Synonyms: special
particular (adj.)
exacting especially about details;
very particular about how her food was prepared
Synonyms: finical / finicky / fussy / picky
particular (n.)
a fact about some part (as opposed to general);
he always reasons from the particular to the general
Synonyms: specific
particular (n.)
a small part that can be considered separately from the whole;
Synonyms: detail / item
particular (n.)
(logic) a proposition that asserts something about some (but not all) members of a class;
Synonyms: particular proposition