c. 1300, parlement, "consultation; formal conference, assembly," from Old French parlement (11c.), originally "a speaking, talk," from parler "to speak" (see parley (n.)); the spelling was altered c. 1400 to conform with Medieval Latin parliamentum.
Anglo-Latin parliamentum is attested from early 13c. The specific sense of "representative assembly of England or Ireland" (with capital P-) emerged by mid-14c. from the broader meaning "a conference of the secular and/or ecclesiastical aristocracy summoned by a monarch."