Words related to over-

overwhelm (v.)

mid-14c., overwhelmen, "to turn upside down, overthrow, knock over," from over- + Middle English whelmen "to turn upside down" (see whelm). Meaning "to submerge completely" is early 15c. Perhaps the connecting notion is a boat, etc., washed over, and overset, by a big wave. Figurative sense of "to bring to ruin" is attested from 1520s. Related: Overwhelmed; overwhelming; overwhelmingly.

overwind (v.)

also over-wind, "wind too much or too tightly," c. 1600, from over- + wind (v.1). Related: Overwound; overwinding. Middle English had overwinden (mid-15c.) as "to raise (something) up or above by winding."

overwinter (v.)

"to pass the winter (in some place)," 1895, from over- + winter (v.). From 1933 as "to live through the winter;" transitive sense, in reference to animals, etc., "to keep alive over the winter" is by 1945. Related: Overwintered; overwintering. Old English had oferwintran "get through the winter."  

overwork (v.)

"to cause to work too hard," 1520s, from over- + work (v.). The figurative sense of "to work into a state of excitement and confusion" is by 1640s. Old English oferwyrcan meant "to work all over," i.e. "to decorate the whole surface of." Related: Overworked; overworking.

overwrite (v.)
1690s, "to write over other writing," from over- + write (v.). Of computers, it is attested from 1959. Meaning "to write too elaborately or ornately" is from 1923. Related: Overwriting; overwritten.
overwrought (adj.)

of feelings, imagination, etc., "worked up to too high a pitch, overexcited," 1758, literally "over-worked, worked too hard or too much," from over- + wrought. Earlier it meant "exhausted by work" (1660s), of oxen, etc., as a literal past participle of overwork (v.).

overzealous (adj.)

also over-zealous, "too zealous, exhibiting an excess of zeal," 1630s, from over- + zealous. Related: Overzealously; overzealousness.

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