c. 1300, "evil deed, offense, crime; affront, indignity, act not within established or reasonable limits," of food, drink, dress, speech, etc., from Old French outrage "harm, damage; insult; criminal behavior; presumption, insolence, overweening" (12c.), earlier oltrage (11c.), from Vulgar Latin *ultraticum "excess," from Latin ultra "beyond" (from suffixed form of PIE root *al- "beyond").
Etymologically, "the passing beyond reasonable bounds" in any sense; meaning narrowed in English toward violent excesses because of folk etymology from out + rage. Of injuries to feelings, principles, etc., from 1769.