Etymology
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Words related to orthodontia

ortho- 

before vowels orth-, word-forming element meaning "straight, upright, rectangular, regular; true, correct, proper," now mostly in scientific and technical compounds, from Greek orthos "straight, true, correct, regular," from PIE *eredh- "high" (source also of Sanskrit urdhvah "high, lofty, steep," Latin arduus "high, steep," Old Irish ard "high").

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*dent- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "tooth."

It forms all or part of: al dente; dandelion; dental; dentifrice; dentist; dentition; denture; glyptodon; indent (v.1) "to make notches;" mastodon; orthodontia; periodontal; teethe; tooth; toothsome; tusk; trident.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit danta, Greek odontos (gen.), Latin dens, Lithuanian dantis, Old Irish det, Welsh dent, Old English toð, German Zahn, Gothic tunþus "tooth."

-ia 
word-forming element in names of countries, diseases, and flowers, from Latin and Greek -ia, noun ending, in Greek especially used in forming abstract nouns (typically of feminine gender); see -a (1). The classical suffix in its usual evolution (via French -ie) comes to Modern English as -y (as in familia/family, also -logy, -graphy). Compare -cy.

In paraphernalia, Mammalia, regalia, etc. it represents Latin or Greek -a (see -a (2)), plural suffix of nouns in -ium (Latin) or -ion (Greek), with formative or euphonic -i-.
orthodontic (adj.)

"serving to correct the positions of the teeth," 1905, from orthodontia + -ic.

orthodontist (n.)

"one who practices orthodontia," 1903; see orthodontia + -ist.