Etymology
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Words related to orient

origin (n.)

c. 1400, "ancestry, race," from Latin originem (nominative origo) "a rise, commencement, beginning, source; descent, lineage, birth," from stem of oriri "arise, rise, get up; appear above the horizon, become visible; be born, be descended, receive life;" figuratively "come forth, take origin, proceed, start" (of rivers, rumors, etc.), from PIE *heri- "to rise" (source also of Hittite arai- "to arise, lift, raise," Sanskrit iyarti "to set in motion, move," Armenian y-arnem "to rise"). Meaning "beginning of existence" is from 1560s; sense of "that from which something derives its being or nature" is from c. 1600.

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oriented (adj.)

"having a specified orientation," 1918, past-participle adjective from orient (v.)

austral (adj.)

"southern, of or pertaining to the south," 1540s, from Latin australis, from auster "south wind; south," from Proto-Italic *aus-tero- (adj.) "towards the dawn," from PIE *heus-tero- (source also of Sanskrit usra- "red; matutinal," usar-budh- "waking at dawn;" Greek aurion "tomorrow;" Lithuanian aušra "dawn;" Old Church Slavonic jutro "dawn, morning; tomorrow;" Old High German ostara "Easter"), from PIE root *aus- (1) "to shine," especially of the dawn.

The Latin sense shift in auster, if it is indeed the same word other Indo-European languages use for "east," for which Latin uses oriens (see Orient (n.)), perhaps is based on a false assumption about the orientation of the Italian peninsula, "with shift through 'southeast' explained by the diagonal position of the axis of Italy" [Buck]; see Walde, Alois, "Lateinisches etymologisches Wörterbuch," 3rd. ed., vol. I, p.87; Ernout, Alfred, and Meillet, Alfred, "Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue latine," 2nd. ed., p.94.

Or perhaps the connection is more ancient, and from PIE root *aus- "to shine," source of aurora, which also produces words for "burning," with reference to the "hot" south wind that blows into Italy. Thus auster "(hot) south wind," metaphorically extended to "south."

oriental (adj.)

late 14c., "of the orient; from the east," from Old French oriental "eastern, from the east" (12c.) and directly from Latin orientalis "of or belonging to the east," from orientem (see orient (n.)). Originally in reference to the sky, geographical sense, often with a capital O-, is attested from late 15c.; oriental carpet is recorded by 1828. Of gems or stones, "of superior quality," late 14c.

disorient (v.)

"confuse as to direction," 1650s, from French désorienter "to cause to lose one's bearings," literally "to turn from the east," from dés- (see dis-) + orienter (see orient (v.)). Related: Disoriented; disorienting.

At the end of this labyrinth, when he had little guess where he had been conducted, and was, according to the French phrase, totally desorienté, (etc.). [Scott, "Redgauntlet," 1824]
orientation (n.)

1839, "arrangement (of a building, etc.) to face east or any other specified direction," noun of action from orient (v.). Meaning "process of determining the points of the compass is by 1868, hence the extended sense of "action of determining one's mental bearings," with reference to new ideas, etc. (1870). Meaning "introduction to a situation" is from 1942. Sense of "the position or arrangement (of something) relative to the points of the compass" is from 1875. Related: Orientational.

orienteering (n.)

in reference to the competitive sport of finding one's way in the wild with the aid of a map and a compass, 1948, from orient (v.).

reorient (v.)

also re-orient, 1897, transitive, "give a new direction to;" 1937, intransitive, "adjust (to), come to terms with, adopt a new direction;" from re- "back, again" + orient (v.) or perhaps a back-formation from reorientation. Related: Reoriented; reorienting. Alternative reorientate is recorded from 1913. Tennyson uses reorient as an adjective, "arising again or anew."