Etymology
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opposition (n.)

late 14c., opposicioun, an astrological term for the situation of two heavenly bodies exactly across from one another in the heavens, from Old French oposicion (12c.) and directly from Latin oppositionem (nominative oppositio) "act of opposing, a placing against," noun of action from past-participle stem of opponere "set against," from assimilated form of ob "in front of, in the way of" (see ob-) + ponere "to put, set, place" (see position (n.)).

General sense of "the position of that which faces or confronts something else" is from c. 1400. The meaning "that which is opposite something else" is from 1540s; meaning "act of resisting, antagonism" is attested from 1580s; sense of "

body of opposers," especially "the political party opposed to the one in power" is from 1704.

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Definitions of opposition
1
opposition (n.)
the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with;
despite opposition from the newspapers he went ahead
Synonyms: resistance
opposition (n.)
the relation between opposed entities;
Synonyms: oppositeness
opposition (n.)
the act of hostile groups opposing each other;
the invaders encountered stiff opposition
Synonyms: confrontation
opposition (n.)
a contestant that you are matched against;
Synonyms: opponent / opposite
opposition (n.)
a body of people united in opposing something;
opposition (n.)
a direction opposite to another;
opposition (n.)
an armed adversary (especially a member of an opposing military force);
Synonyms: enemy / foe / foeman
2
Opposition (n.)
the major political party opposed to the party in office and prepared to replace it if elected;
Her Majesty's loyal opposition
From wordnet.princeton.edu