Words related to offend


word-forming element meaning "toward; against; before; near; across; down," also used as an intensive, from Latin ob (prep.) "in the direction of, in front of, before; toward, to, at, upon, about; in the way of; with regard to, because of," from PIE root *epi, also *opi "near, against" (see epi-).

defend (v.)
Origin and meaning of defend

mid-13c., defenden, "to shield from attack, guard against assault or injury," from Old French defendre (12c.) "defend, resist," and directly from Latin defendere "ward off, protect, guard, allege in defense," from de "from, away" (see de-) + -fendere "to strike, hit, push," attested only in compounds (such as offendere "to strike against; encounter;" infensus "aggressive, hostile"), from PIE root *gwhend- "to strike, kill" (source also of Hittite kue(n)zi "to kill," Sanskrit ghnanti "to kill; Greek theino "to slay, to kill;" Armenian jnem "to strike;" Lithuanian ginti "to protect, defend;" Old Irish gonaid "wounds, kills;" Welsh gwan "to thrust, hit;" Old Breton goanaff "to punish, sting").

It is attested from c. 1300 as "fight in defense of" (someone or something). From mid-14c. as "defend with words, speak in support of, vindicate, uphold, maintain." In Middle English it also could mean "forbid, prohibit; restrain, prevent." In the Mercian hymns, Latin defendet is glossed by Old English gescildeð. Related: Defended; defending.

offense (n.)

late 14c., "hurt, harm, injury, pain;" also "breach of the law, wrongdoing; transgression against God, sin;" also "the causing of displeasure, act or fact of wounding the feelings of or displeasing another;" also "displeasure, annoyance, umbrage," from Old French ofense "offense, insult, wrong" (13c.) and directly from Latin offensa "an offense, injury, affront, crime," literally "a striking against," noun use of fem. past participle of offendere (see offend).

Meaning "action of attacking" is from c. 1400. Sporting sense of "the team on the attack, at bat, with the ball," etc. is by 1894.

offensive (adj.)

1540s, "used in attack, attacking;" 1570s, "insulting, causing or giving displeasure," from French offensif (16c.) and directly from Medieval Latin offensivus, from Latin offens-, past-participle stem of offendere "offend" (see offend). Sense of "disgusting, disagreeable" (of odors, taste, etc.) is from 1590s. Related: Offensively; offensiveness.

offender (n.)

early 15c., offendour, "a lawbreaker; a sinner," agent noun from offend (v.). Earlier was offendour (early 15c.), from Anglo-French.

unoffending (adj.)

1560s, from un- (1) "not" + present participle of offend (v.).