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number (n.)

c. 1300, "sum, aggregate of a collection," from Anglo-French noumbre, Old French nombre and directly from Latin numerus "a number, quantity," from PIE root *nem- "assign, allot; take."

Meaning "written symbol or figure of arithmetic value" is from late 14c. Meaning "single (numbered) issue of a magazine" is from 1795. Colloquial sense of "a person or thing" is by 1894. Meaning "dialing combination to reach a particular telephone receiver" is from 1879; hence wrong number (1886). The modern meaning "musical selection" (1885) is from vaudeville theater programs, where acts were marked by a number. Earlier numbers meant "metrical sound or utterance, measured or harmonic expression" (late 15c.) and, from 1580s, "poetical measure, poetry, verse."

Number one "oneself" is from 1704 (mock-Italian form numero uno attested from 1973); the biblical Book of Numbers (c. 1400, Latin Numeri, Greek Arithmoi) is so called because it begins with a census of the Israelites. Childish slang number one and number two for "urination" and "defecation" attested from 1902. Number cruncher is 1966, of machines; 1971 of persons. To get or have (someone's) number "have someone figured out" is attested from 1853; to say one's number is up (1806) meaning "one's time has come" is a reference to the numbers on a lottery, draft, etc. The numbers "illegal lottery" is from 1897, American English.

number (v.)

c. 1300, "to count," from Old French nombrer "to count, reckon," from nombre (n.) "number" (see number (n.)). Meaning "to assign a distinctive number to" is late 14c.; that of "to ascertain the number of" is from early 15c. Related: Numbered; numbering.

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Definitions of number
1
number (n.)
the property possessed by a sum or total or indefinite quantity of units or individuals;
the number of parameters is small
Synonyms: figure
number (n.)
a concept of quantity involving zero and units;
every number has a unique position in the sequence
number (n.)
a short performance that is part of a longer program;
it was one of the best numbers he ever did
Synonyms: act / routine / turn / bit
number (n.)
the number is used in calling a particular telephone;
he has an unlisted number
Synonyms: phone number / telephone number
number (n.)
a symbol used to represent a number;
Synonyms: numeral
number (n.)
one of a series published periodically;
Synonyms: issue
number (n.)
a select company of people;
I hope to become one of their number before I die
number (n.)
a numeral or string of numerals that is used for identification and may be attached to accounts, memberships, etc.;
she refused to give them her Social Security number
number (n.)
a clothing measurement;
a number 13 shoe
number (n.)
a numbered item in a series;
take the number 2 to the main square, then change to the number 5
number (n.)
the grammatical category for the forms of nouns and pronouns and verbs that are used depending on the number of entities involved (singular or dual or plural);
in English the subject and the verb must agree in number
number (n.)
an item of clothing;
this sweater is an all-wool number
she preferred the black nylon number
2
number (v.)
add up in number or quantity;
Synonyms: total / add up / come / amount
number (v.)
give numbers to;
You should number the pages of the thesis
number (v.)
enumerate;
We must number the names of the great mathematicians
Synonyms: list
number (v.)
put into a group;
Synonyms: count
number (v.)
determine the number or amount of;
Synonyms: count / enumerate / numerate
number (v.)
place a limit on the number of;
Synonyms: keep down
From wordnet.princeton.edu