Etymology
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Words related to number

*nem- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "assign, allot; take."

It forms all or part of: agronomy; anomie; anomy; antinomian; antinomy; astronomer; astronomy; autonomous; autonomy; benumb; Deuteronomy; economy; enumerate; enumeration; gastronomy; heteronomy; innumerable; metronome; namaste; nemesis; nimble; nim; nomad; nomothetic; numb; numeracy; numeral; numerator; numerical; numerology; numerous; numismatic; supernumerary; taxonomy.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek nemein "to deal out," nemesis "just indignation;" Latin numerus "number;" Lithuanian nuoma "rent, interest;" Middle Irish nos "custom, usage;" German nehmen "to take."
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misnumber (v.)

1610s, "to count or reckon incorrectly," from mis- (1) "badly, wrongly" + number (v.). Related: Misnumbered; misnumbering.

outnumber (v.)

"to number more than, exceed in number," 1660s, from out- + number (v.). Related: Outnumbered; outnumbering.

renumber (v.)

also re-number, "count again; fix a new number to," early 15c., from re- "again" + number (v.). Related: Renumbered; renumbering. Middle English also had renombren (mid-15c.), from Old French renombrer.

unnumbered (adj.)
late 14c., from un- (1) "not" + past participle of number (v.).
enumerate (v.)

"to count; ascertain or tell over the number of;" hence, "mention in detail, recapitulate," 1640s, from or modeled on Latin enumeratus, past participle of enumerare "to reckon up, count over, enumerate," from assimilated form of ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + numerare "to count, number," from numerus "number" (see number (n.)). Middle English had annumerate (early 15c.). Related: Enumerated; enumerating.

enumeration (n.)

1550s, "action of enumerating," from French énumération, from Latin enumerationem (nominative enumeratio) "a counting up," noun of action from past-participle stem of enumerare "to reckon up, count over, enumerate," from assimilated form of ex "out, out of" (see ex-) + numerare "to count, number," from numerus "number" (see number (n.)). Meaning "a list, catalogue" is from 1724.

innumerable (adj.)
mid-14c., from Latin innumerabilis "countless, immeasurable," from in- "not" (see in- (1)) + numerabilis "able to be numbered," from numerare "to count, number," from numerus "a number" (see number (n.)). Related: Innumerability.
innumerate (adj.)
"unacquainted with the basic principles of mathematics," 1959, based on illiterate, with Latin numerus "a number" (see number (n.)). Related: Innumeracy.
No. 
as an abbreviation meaning (and pronounced) "number," 1660s, from Latin numero, ablative singular of numerus (see number (n.)).