also nonresident, early 15c., "a clergyman who fails to reside in the locality of his benefice," from non- + resident. General sense of "one who does not reside within a particular jurisdiction" is by 1819.
a prefix used freely in English and meaning "not, lack of," or "sham," giving a negative sense to any word, 14c., from Anglo-French noun-, from Old French non-, from Latin non "not, by no means, not at all, not a," from Old Latin noenum "not one" (*ne oinom, from PIE root *ne- "not" + PIE root *oi-no- "one, unique"). In some cases perhaps from Middle English non "not" (adj.), from Old English nan (see not). "It differs from un- in that it denotes mere negation or absence of the thing or quality, while un- often denotes the opposite of the thing or quality" [Century Dictionary].
mid-15c., "an inhabitant, one who dwells in a place permanently or for a considerable time," from resident (adj.). Meaning "medical graduate doing supervised specialized practice in a hospital as training" is attested by 1892, American English.
<a href="https://www.etymonline.com/word/non-resident">Etymology of non-resident by etymonline</a>
Harper, D. (n.d.). Etymology of non-resident. Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved $(datetime), from https://www.etymonline.com/word/non-resident