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mushroom (n.)

a word applied at first to almost any of the larger fungi but later to the agaricoid fungi and especially the edible varieties, mid-15c., muscheron, musseroun (attested 1327 as a surname, John Mussheron), from Anglo-French musherun, Old French meisseron (11c., Modern French mousseron), perhaps from Late Latin mussirionem (nominative mussirio), though this might as well be borrowed from French.

Barnhart says "of uncertain origin." Klein calls it "a word of pre-Latin origin, used in the North of France;" OED says it usually is held to be a derivative of French mousse "moss" (from Germanic), and Weekley agrees, saying it is properly "applied to variety which grows in moss," but Klein says they have "nothing in common." For the final -m Weekley refers to grogram, vellum, venom. Modern spelling is from 1560s.

Used figuratively for something or someone that makes a sudden appearance in full form from 1590s, especially an upstart person or family, one who rises rapidly from a low station in life. In reference to the shape of clouds that rise upward and outward after explosions, etc., it is attested from 1916, though the actual phrase mushroom cloud does not appear until 1955.

mushroom (v.)

"expand or increase rapidly; rise suddenly in position or rank," 1741, from mushroom (n.). Related: Mushroomed; mushrooming.

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Definitions of mushroom
1
mushroom (n.)
common name for an edible agaric (contrasting with the inedible toadstool);
mushroom (n.)
mushrooms and related fleshy fungi (including toadstools, puffballs, morels, coral fungi, etc.);
mushroom (n.)
any of various fleshy fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota consisting of a cap at the end of a stem arising from an underground mycelium;
mushroom (n.)
a large cloud of rubble and dust shaped like a mushroom and rising into the sky after an explosion (especially of a nuclear bomb);
Synonyms: mushroom cloud / mushroom-shaped cloud
mushroom (n.)
fleshy body of any of numerous edible fungi;
2
mushroom (v.)
pick or gather mushrooms;
We went mushrooming in the Fall
mushroom (v.)
grow and spread fast;
The problem mushroomed
From wordnet.princeton.edu