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much (adj.)

c. 1200, "great in quantity or extent" (also "great in size, big, large," a sense now obsolete), a worn-down form (by loss of unaccented last syllable) of Middle English muchel "large, tall; many, in a large amount; great, formidable," from Old English micel "great in amount or extent," from Proto-Germanic *mekilaz, from PIE root *meg- "great."

As a noun, "a large quantity, a great deal," and as an adverb, "in a great degree, intensely, extensively," from c. 1200. Since 17c. the adverb has been much-used as a prefix to participial forms to make compound adjectives. For vowel evolution, see bury. Too much was used from late 14c. in the senses "astonishing, incredible," also "too offensive, unforgivable." Much-what "various things, this and that" (late 14c.) was "Very common in the 17th c." [OED] and turns up in an 1899 book of Virginia folk-speech as well as "Ulysses."

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Definitions of much from WordNet
1
much (adv.)
to a great degree or extent;
she's much better now
much (adv.)
very;
he was much annoyed
much (adv.)
to a very great degree or extent;
she was very much interested
we enjoyed ourselves very much
Synonyms: a lot / lots / a good deal / a great deal / very much
much (adv.)
(degree adverb used before a noun phrase) for all practical purposes but not completely;
much the same thing happened every time
Synonyms: practically
much (adv.)
frequently or in great quantities;
I don't travel much
I don't drink much
Synonyms: a great deal / often
2
much (n.)
a great amount or extent;
they did much for humanity
3
much (adj.)
(quantifier used with mass nouns) great in quantity or degree or extent;
much affection
not much rain
much grain is in storage
From wordnet.princeton.edu