Etymology
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mother (n.1)

"female parent, a woman in relation to her child," Middle English moder, from Old English modor, from Proto-Germanic *mōdēr (source also of Old Saxon modar, Old Frisian moder, Old Norse moðir, Danish moder, Dutch moeder, Old High German muoter, German Mutter), from PIE *mater- "mother" (source also of Latin māter, Old Irish mathir, Lithuanian motė, Sanskrit matar-, Greek mētēr, Old Church Slavonic mati), "[b]ased ultimately on the baby-talk form *mā- (2); with the kinship term suffix *-ter-" [Watkins]. Spelling with -th- dates from early 16c., though that pronunciation is probably older (see father (n.)).

Sense of "that which has given birth to anything" is from late Old English; as a familiar term of address to an elderly woman, especially of the lower class, by c. 1200.

Mother Nature as a personification is attested from c. 1600; mother earth as an expression of the earth as the giver of life is from 1580s. Mother tongue "one's native language" is attested from late 14c. Mother country "a country in relation to its colonies" is from 1580s. Mother-love "such affection as is shown by a mother" is by 1854. Mother-wit "native wit, common sense" is from mid-15c.

Mother of all ________ (1991), is Gulf War slang, from Saddam Hussein's use in reference to the coming battle; it is an Arabic idiom (as well as an English one), for instance Ayesha, second wife of Muhammad, is known as Mother of Believers; the figure is attested in English in 19c. (Virginia is called mother of commonwealths from 1849). Mother Carey's chickens is late 18c. sailors' nickname for storm petrels, or for snowflakes.

mother (v.)

early 15c., intransitive, "be a mother;" 1540s, transitive, "to be the mother of;" from mother (n.1). Meaning "to take care of act as a mother to" is from 1863. Related: Mothered; mothering.

mother (n.2)

"a thick substance concreting in liquors; the lees or scum concreted" [Johnson], 1530s, probably from Middle Dutch modder "filth, dregs," from PIE *meu- (see mud).

updated on February 27, 2019

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Definitions of mother from WordNet
1
mother (n.)
a woman who has given birth to a child (also used as a term of address to your mother);
the mother of three children
Synonyms: female parent
mother (n.)
a stringy slimy substance consisting of yeast cells and bacteria; forms during fermentation and is added to cider or wine to produce vinegar;
mother (n.)
a term of address for an elderly woman;
mother (n.)
a term of address for a mother superior;
mother (n.)
a condition that is the inspiration for an activity or situation;
necessity is the mother of invention
2
mother (v.)
care for like a mother;
Synonyms: fuss / overprotect
mother (v.)
make (offspring) by reproduction;
Synonyms: beget / get / engender / father / sire / generate / bring forth
From wordnet.princeton.edu, not affiliated with etymonline.