"first part of the day" (technically from midnight to noon), late 14c., a contraction of mid-13c. morwenynge, moregeninge, from morn, morewen (see morn) + suffix -ing, on pattern of evening. Originally the time just before sunrise.
As an adjective from 1530s; as a greeting by 1895, short for good morning. Morning after in reference to a hangover is from 1884; in reference to a type of contraception, attested by 1967. Morning sickness as a symptom of pregnancy is from 1793 (Old English had morgenwlætung). Morning glory, the twining plant, is from 1814, so called because the colorful trumpet-shaped flowers open only in the early morning. Morning star "Venus in the east before sunrise" is from 1530s (Old English had morgensteorra "morn-star").