Words related to moral
"emotional condition, state of mind as regards passion or feeling," c. 1300, from Old English mod "heart, frame of mind, spirit; courage, arrogance, pride; power, violence" (also used to translate Latin animus, mens), from Proto-Germanic *mōda- (source also of Old Saxon mod "mind, courage," Old Frisian mod "intellect, mind, intention," Old Norse moðr "wrath, anger," Middle Dutch moet, Dutch moed, Old High German muot, German Mut "courage," Gothic moþs "courage, anger"), a word of unknown origin (Boutkan finds no acceptable IE etymology).
A much more vigorous word in Anglo-Saxon than currently, and used widely in compounds (such as modcræftig "intelligent," modful "proud"). The Old English senses now are obsolete. Meaning "a fit of bad temper; sullenness, sudden anger" is by 1859. To be in the mood "in a state of mind to be willing (to do or omit something)" is from 1580s. First record of mood swings is by 1939.
1752, "moral principles or practice," from French morale "morality, good conduct," from fem. of Old French moral "moral" (see moral (adj.)). Meaning "mental condition as regards confidence, courage, hope, etc." (especially as regards soldiers, sailors, or any body of persons engaged in a hazardous enterprise) is recorded by 1831, from confusion with French moral (Modern French distinguishes le moral "temperament" and la morale "morality").
late 14c., moralite, "moral qualities, virtuous conduct or thought," from Old French moralite (Modern French moralité) "moral (of a story); moral instruction; morals, moral character" (13c.) and directly from Late Latin moralitatem (nominative moralitas) "manner, character," from Latin moralis "of manners or morals; moral" (see moral (adj.)). Meaning "doctrine or system of ethical duties" is from mid-15c. Meaning "goodness, characteristic of being moral, virtuousness" is attested from 1590s.
Where there is no free agency, there can be no morality. Where there is no temptation, there can be little claim to virtue. Where the routine is rigorously proscribed by law, the law, and not the man, must have the credit of the conduct. [William H. Prescott, "History of the Conquest of Peru," 1847]
c. 1400, moralizen, "expound or interpret spiritual or moral significance, draw a moral from," from Old French moraliser and directly from Late Latin moralizare, from moralis "of manners or morals; moral" (see moral (adj.)). Intransitive sense of "make moral reflections" is from 1640s. Related: Moralized; moralizing; moralization.