Etymology
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Words related to mono-

*men- (4)

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "small, isolated."

It forms all or part of: malmsey; manometer; monad; monarchy; monastery; monism; monist; monk; mono; mono-; monoceros; monochrome; monocle; monocular; monogamy; monogram; monolith; monologue; monomania; Monophysite; monopoly; monosyllable; monotony.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Greek monos "single, alone," manos "rare, sparse;" Armenian manr "thin, slender, small."

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monochromatic (adj.)

"of one color, consisting of light of one wavelength," 1807, from mono- + chromatic, or from monochrome. Perhaps based on French monochromatique or Greek monokhrōmatos "of one color." Related: Monochromatically (1784).

monoculture (n.)

"cultivation of a single crop when others are possible," 1915, from French (c. 1900); see  mono- "single" + culture (n.).

monogeny (n.)

1856; "generation of an individual from one parent which develops both male and female products;" 1865, "theory that humankind originated from a single pair of ancestors;" see mono- + -geny. In the first sense, monogenesis (1866, from Modern Latin) has been used; monogenetic has been used in both senses. Related: Monogenism.

monoglot (adj.)

"speaking or using only one language," 1830, from Late Greek monoglōttos, from monos "single, alone" (see mono-) + glōtta "tongue, language" (see gloss (n.2)).

monogony (n.)

"asexual reproduction, reproduction by fission or gemmation," 1869, from Greek monos "single, alone" (see mono-) + -gonia "a begetting," from gonos "birth" (from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget"). 

monograph (n.)

"treatise on a single subject, account or description of a single thing," 1805, from mono- "single" + -graph "something written." Earlier in this sense was monography (1773). Related: Monographic; monographist; monographer (1770).

monogyny (n.)

"the mating with only one female or wife," by 1859, from Greek monos "single, alone" (see mono-) + gynē "female, woman" (from PIE root *gwen- "woman"). Related: Monogynist; monogynous. Used a few years earlier in translations of Fourier, where it refers to the quality of those who "excel in some one function."

monokini (n.)

"one-piece swimsuit, usually resembling the bottom of a bikini," 1964, from mono- + bikini, on mistaken notion that the bi- element was the Greek prefix meaning "two."

monolingual (adj.)

"speaking or using only one language," by 1939, from mono- "single, alone" + ending from bilingual, etc.