Etymology
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Words related to million

billion (n.)

1680s, from French billion (originally byllion in Chuquet's unpublished "Le Triparty en la Science des Nombres," 1484; copied by De la Roche, 1520); see bi- "two" + million. A million million in Britain and Germany (numeration by groups of sixes), which was the original sense; subsequently altered in French to "a thousand million" (numeration by groups of threes) and picked up in that form in U.S., "due in part to French influence after the Revolutionary War" [David E. Smith, "History of Mathematics," 1925]. France reverted to the original meaning in 1948. British usage is truer to the etymology, but U.S. sense is said to be increasingly common there in technical writing.

In Italian arithmetics from the last quarter of the fifteenth century the words bilione or duilione, trilione, quadrilione or quattrilione, quintilione, cinquilione, or quinquilione, sestione or sestilione, settilione, ottilione, noeilione and decilione occur as common abbreviations of due volte millioni, tre volte millione, etc. In other countries these words came into use much later, although one French writer, Nicolas Chuquet, mentions them as early as 1484, in a book not printed until 1881. The Italians had, besides, another system of numeration, proceeding by powers of a thousand. The French, who like other northern peoples, took most if not all their knowledge of modern or Arabic arithmetic from the Italians, early confounded the two systems of Italian numeration, counting in powers of a thousand, but adopting the names which properly belong to powers of a million. [Century Dictionary]

For a time in Britain gillion (1961), based on giga-, was tried as "a thousand million" to avoid ambiguity. Compare milliard.

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centillion (n.)

in France and U.S., "1,000 to the hundredth power," 1846, from centi- "one hundred" (in reference to the 100 groups of three zeroes it has beyond the first group of three zeroes) + ending from million, etc. Compare French centillion (by 1841). Generally used indefinitely for "a very large number." Related: Centillionth.

jillion (n.)

by 1939, arbitrary coinage, modeled on million, etc. Compare zillion, gazillion.

mil (n.)

1721, in per mil "per thousand," from Latin mille "thousand" (see million); compare percent. As a unit of length for diameter of wire (equal to .001 of an inch) it is attested from 1891; as a unit of angular measure it is recorded by 1907.

milfoil (n.)

"yarrow," a composite herb, mid-13c., from Old French milfoil, from Latin millefolium, literally "thousand leaf," so called from the abundance of its leaves; from mille "thousand" (see million) + folium "leaf" (from PIE root *bhel- (3) "to thrive, bloom").

mill (n.2)

"one-tenth of a cent," 1786, an original U.S. currency unit but now used only for tax calculation purposes, shortening of Latin millesimum "one-thousandth part," from mille "a thousand" (see million). Formed on the analogy of cent, which is short for Latin centesimus "one hundredth" (of a dollar). Compare mil.

millenarian (n.)

1670s, "one who believes in the coming of the (Christian) millennium" (by 1550s in Latin plural form millenarii), from Latin millenarius "containing a thousand," from millenia "a thousand each," from mille "thousand" (see million). With -ian. As an adjective, "pertaining to the (Christian) millennium," from 1630s.

The apparent inconsistency in spelling (-n-, -nn-) results from the fact that millenarian, like millenary, does not contain the stem of the Latin annus year, which is present in millennium .... [Fowler]
millenary (adj.)

"consisting of or containing a thousand," 1570s, from Late Latin millenarius "containing a thousand," from millenia "a thousand each," from Latin mille "thousand" (see million). As a noun, 1560s as "a believer in the (Christian) millennium;" by 1897 as "thousandth anniversary."

millennium (n.)

1630s, "the 1,000-year period of Christ's anticipated rule on Earth" (Revelation xx.1-5); from Modern Latin millennium, from Latin mille "thousand" (see million) + annus "year" (see annual); formed on analogy of biennium, triennium, etc. For vowel change, see biennial. General (non-theological) sense of "an aggregate of 1,000 years, a period or interval of 1,000 years" is attested by 1711. Meaning "the year 2000 A.D." is attested by 1970.

[T]he men of the modern world—up to a generation ago anyway—saw 2000 as a millennial year in the light of science. Men were then to be freed of want, misery, and disease; reason and advanced technology would rule; all would finally be for the best in what would then be the undoubted best of all possible worlds. [Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, December 1962]
milli- 

word-forming element meaning "thousand; thousandth part (of a metric unit)," from combining form of Latin mille "thousand" (see million).