Etymology
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measure (v.)

early 14c., mesuren, "to exercise moderation;" mid-14c., "to deal out or divide up by measure," also "to ascertain spatial dimensions, quantity, or capacity of by comparison with a standard;" from Old French mesurer "measure; moderate, curb" (12c.), from Late Latin mensurare "to measure," from Latin mensura "a measuring, a measurement; thing to measure by," from mensus, past participle of metiri "to measure," from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure." The native verb is mete. Intransitive sense of "to be of a (specified) measure" is from 1670s. To measure up "have the necessary abilities" is 1910, American English. Related: Measured; measuring.

measure (n.)

c. 1200, "moderation, temperance, abstemiousness;" c. 1300, "instrument for measuring," from Old French mesure "limit, boundary; quantity, dimension; occasion, time" (12c.), from Latin mensura "a measuring, a measurement; thing to measure by," from mensus, past participle of metiri "to measure," from PIE root *me- (2) "to measure." The native word was Old English cognate mæð "measure."

Meaning "size or quantity as ascertained by measuring" is from early 14c. Meanings "action of measuring; standard measure of quantity; system of measuring; appointed or allotted amount of anything" are from late 14c. Also from late 14c. are the senses "proper proportion; balance." Sense of "that to which something is compared to determine its quantity" is from 1570s.

In music, from late 14c. as "air, tune;" 1570s as "rhythmic pattern." Specifically as "a group of tones indicated between two primary beats" is from 1660s. From mid-15c. as "rhythmic pattern in poetry;" c. 1500 in dance. Meaning "treatment 'meted out' to someone" is from 1590s; that of "plan or course of action intended to obtain some goal" is from 1690s; sense of "legislative enactment" is from 1759. Figurative phrase for good measure is from good measure as "ample in quantity in goods sold by measure" (late 14c.).

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Definitions of measure
1
measure (n.)
any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal;
the situation called for strong measures
Synonyms: step
measure (n.)
how much there is or how many there are of something that you can quantify;
Synonyms: quantity / amount
measure (n.)
a statute in draft before it becomes law;
Synonyms: bill
measure (n.)
the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule;
Synonyms: measurement / measuring / mensuration
measure (n.)
a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated;
they set the measure for all subsequent work
measure (n.)
(prosody) the accent in a metrical foot of verse;
Synonyms: meter / metre / beat / cadence
measure (n.)
musical notation for a repeating pattern of musical beats;
Synonyms: bar
measure (n.)
measuring instrument having a sequence of marks at regular intervals; used as a reference in making measurements;
Synonyms: measuring stick / measuring rod
measure (n.)
a container of some standard capacity that is used to obtain fixed amounts of a substance;
2
measure (v.)
determine the measurements of something or somebody, take measurements of;
Synonyms: mensurate / measure out
measure (v.)
express as a number or measure or quantity;
Synonyms: quantify
measure (v.)
have certain dimensions;
This table surfaces measures 20inches by 36 inches
measure (v.)
evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of;
Synonyms: evaluate / valuate / assess / appraise / value
From wordnet.princeton.edu