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mazurka (n.)

lively Polish dance, properly for four or eight pairs of dancers, also mazourka, 1818, from Russian mazurka, from Polish mazurek "dance of the Mazur," a reference to inhabitants of Mazowsze (Medieval Latin Mazovia), ancient region in central Poland. The Polish accusative in tańczyć mazurka "to dance the mazurek" was interpreted in Russian as a feminine affix, hence the -ka ending. Also the name for the music of such, which is moderately rapid and in triple time. Popularized by Chopin.

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