Etymology
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matriarchy (n.)

"government by a mother or mothers; form of social organization in which the mother is the head of the family and the descendants are reckoned through the maternal side," formed in English 1881 from matriarch + -y (4) and "patterned after patriarchy" [Barnhart].

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Definitions of matriarchy

matriarchy (n.)
a form of social organization in which a female is the family head and title is traced through the female line;
Synonyms: matriarchate
From wordnet.princeton.edu