Etymology
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mathematical (adj.)

"of, pertaining to, or of the nature of mathematics," early 15c., from Medieval Latin mathematicus "of or belonging to mathematics," from Latin mathematica (see mathematic) + -al (1). Also, by 1765, "pertaining to the quadrivium," comprising arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music. It also could include optics. Related: Mathematically.

The four mathematical arts are arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy; these anciently were termed the quadrivium, or fourfold way of knowledge. [Sir John Hawkins, "A General History of the Science and Practice of Music," Sir John Hawkins, 1776]

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Definitions of mathematical

mathematical (adj.)
of or pertaining to or of the nature of mathematics;
a mathematical solution to a problem
slide rules and other mathematical instruments
mathematical proof
a mathematical textbook
mathematical (adj.)
beyond question;
a mathematical certainty
mathematical (adj.)
statistically possible though highly improbable;
have a mathematical chance of making the playoffs
mathematical (adj.)
characterized by the exactness or precision of mathematics;
mathematical precision
mathematical (adj.)
relating to or having ability to think in or work with numbers;
a mathematical whiz
Synonyms: numerical
From wordnet.princeton.edu