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lexicon (n.)

c. 1600, "a dictionary, a word-book," from French lexicon or directly from Modern Latin lexicon, from Greek lexikon (biblion) "word (book)," from neuter of lexikos "pertaining to words," from lexis "a word, a phrase; reason; way of speech, diction, style," from legein "to say" (from PIE root *leg- (1) "to collect, gather," with derivatives meaning "to speak (to 'pick out words')").

Especially of dictionaries of Greek, Syriac, Hebrew, or Arabic, because these typically were written in Latin, and in Modern Latin lexicon (not dictionarius) was the preferred name for a word-book. The modern sense of "vocabulary proper to some sphere of activity" (1640s) is a figurative extension.

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Definitions of lexicon from WordNet

lexicon (n.)
a language user's knowledge of words;
Synonyms: vocabulary / mental lexicon
lexicon (n.)
a reference book containing an alphabetical list of words with information about them;
Synonyms: dictionary
From wordnet.princeton.edu