Etymology
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let (v.)

Old English lætan (Northumbrian leta) "to allow; to leave behind, depart from; leave undone; bequeath," also "to rent, put to rent or hire" (class VII strong verb; past tense let, leort, past participle gelæten), from Proto-Germanic *letan (source also of Old Saxon latan, Old Frisian leta, Dutch laten, Old High German lazan, German lassen, Gothic letan "to leave, let"), from PIE *led-, extended form of root *‌‌lē- "to let go, slacken." If that derivation is correct, the etymological sense would be "let go through weariness, neglect."

"The shortening of the root vowel ... has not been satisfactorily explained" [OED]. Of blood, from late Old English. Other Old and Middle English senses include "regard as, consider; behave toward; allow to escape; pretend;" to let (someone) know and to let fly (arrows, etc.) preserve the otherwise obsolete sense of "to cause to." To let (someone) off "allow to go unpunished, excuse from service" is from 1814. To let on is from 1725 as "allow (something) to be known, betray one's knowledge of," 1822 as "pretend" (OED finds a similar use in the phrase never let it on him in a letter from 1637). To let out is late 12c. as "allow to depart" (transitive); intransitive use "be concluded," of schools, meetings, etc., is from 1888, considered by Century Dictionary (1895) to be "Rural, U.S." Of garments, etc., late 14c.

Let alone "abstain from interfering with" is in Old English; the phrase in the sense "not to mention, to say nothing of" is from 1812. To let (something) be "leave it alone" is from c. 1300; let it be "let it pass, leave it alone" is from early 14c. To let go is from c. 1300 as "allow to escape," 1520s as "cease to restrain," 1530s as "dismiss from one's thoughts." Let it go "let it pass, no matter" is as old as Chaucer's Wife of Bath: "But age allas Hath me biraft my beautee Lat it go, far wel, the deuel go ther with!" [c. 1395]. Let me see "show me" is from c. 1300.

let (n.)

"stoppage, obstruction" (obsolete unless in legal contracts), late 12c., from archaic verb letten "to hinder," from Old English lettan "hinder, delay, impede," etymologically "make late," from Proto-Germanic *latjan (source also of Old Saxon lettian "to hinder," Old Norse letja "to hold back," Old High German lezzen "to stop, check," Gothic latjan "to hinder, make late"), related to *lata-, source of late (adj.), from PIE root *‌‌lē- "to let go, slacken."

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Definitions of let
1
let (v.)
make it possible through a specific action or lack of action for something to happen;
Synonyms: allow / permit
let (v.)
actively cause something to happen;
I let it be known that I was not interested
let (v.)
consent to, give permission;
I won't let the police search her basement
Synonyms: permit / allow / countenance
let (v.)
cause to move; cause to be in a certain position or condition;
This let me in for a big surprise
Synonyms: get / have
let (v.)
leave unchanged;
let it be
let (v.)
grant use or occupation of under a term of contract;
Synonyms: lease / rent
2
let (n.)
a brutal terrorist group active in Kashmir; fights against India with the goal of restoring Islamic rule of India;
Synonyms: Lashkar-e-Taiba / Lashkar-e-Toiba / Lashkar-e-Tayyiba / Army of the Pure / Army of the Righteous
let (n.)
a serve that strikes the net before falling into the receiver's court; the ball must be served again;
Synonyms: net ball
From wordnet.princeton.edu