Etymology
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last (adj.)

c. 1200, "latest, final, following all others," a contraction of Old English latost (adj.) "slowest, latest," superlative of læt (see late); in some uses from late (adv.). Cognate with Old Frisian lest, Dutch laatst, Old High German laggost, German letzt.

Meaning "last in space, furthest, most remote" is from late 14c.; meaning "most unlikely or unsuitable" is from mid-15c. Meaning "most recent, next before the present" (as in last night, last September) is from late 14c.; latest would be more correct, but idiom rules and the last time I saw her might mean the most recent time this hour or the final time forever.

The biblical last days ("belonging to the end") is attested from late 14c. Last hurrah is from the title of Edwin O'Connor's 1956 novel. Last word "final, definitive statement" is from 1650s. A dying person's last words so called by 1740. As an adjective, last-minute attested from 1913. Last-chance (adj.) is from 1962. Expression if it's the last thing I do, expressing strong determination, is attested by 1905.

last (v.)

"endure, go on existing," from Old English læstan "to continue, endure," earlier "follow (a leader), accomplish, carry out, perform," from Proto-Germanic *laistjan "to follow a track" (source also of Gothic laistjan "to follow after," Old Frisian lasta "to fulfill, to pay (duties)," German leisten "to perform, achieve, afford"), from PIE root *lois- "furrow, track." It is related to last (n.1), but not to last (adj.). Related: Lasted; lasting.

last (n.1)

"wooden model of a human foot used by shoemakers," from Old English læste "shoemaker's last," earlier last "track, footprint, footstep, trace," from Proto-Germanic *laisti- (source also of Old Norse leistr "the foot," Middle Dutch, Dutch leest "form, model, last," Old High German leist "track, footprint," German Leisten "last," Gothic laistjan "to follow"), related to Old English læran "to teach," from PIE root *lois- "furrow, track."

last (n.2)

late Old English, "the last or final man, object, time, etc.," from last (adj.). From late 14c. as "most recent person, latest comer." Also in Middle English as a noun, "duration" (early 14c.), from the verb. Phrase at (the) last is from c. 1200; extended form long last is from 1520s. To the last is from c. 1400.

last (adv.)

c. 1200, "most recently;" early 13c., "finally, after all others" (contrasted to first), contraction of Old English lætest (adv.), superlative of late (see late).

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Definitions of last
1
last (adj.)
immediately past;
the last chapter we read
last Thursday
last (adj.)
coming after all others in time or space or degree or being the only one remaining;
the last game of the season
waited until the last minute
down to his last nickel
the last day of the month
had the last word
the last time I saw Paris
he raised his voice in a last supreme call
last (adj.)
occurring at or forming an end or termination;
the last days of the dinosaurs
Synonyms: concluding / final / terminal
last (adj.)
most unlikely or unsuitable;
the last man they would have chosen for the job
the last person we would have suspected
last (adj.)
occurring at the time of death;
his last words
the last rites
last (adj.)
conclusive in a process or progression;
a last resort
Synonyms: final / net
last (adj.)
highest in extent or degree;
to the last measure of human endurance
whether they were accomplices in the last degree or a lesser one was...to be determined individually
Synonyms: utmost
last (adj.)
not to be altered or undone;
the arbiter will have the last say
Synonyms: final
last (adj.)
lowest in rank or importance;
in last place
last prize
Synonyms: last-place / lowest
2
last (n.)
the temporal end; the concluding time;
Synonyms: stopping point / finale / finis / finish / conclusion / close
last (n.)
the last or lowest in an ordering or series;
he was the last to leave
he finished an inglorious last
last (n.)
a person's dying act; the final thing a person can do;
he breathed his last
last (n.)
the time at which life ends; continuing until dead;
a struggle to the last
Synonyms: death
last (n.)
a unit of weight equal to 4,000 pounds;
last (n.)
a unit of capacity for grain equal to 80 bushels;
last (n.)
the final stage or concluding parts of an event or occurrence;
I had to miss the last of the movie
Synonyms: end
last (n.)
holding device shaped like a human foot that is used to fashion or repair shoes;
Synonyms: shoemaker's last / cobbler's last
3
last (v.)
persist for a specified period of time;
The bad weather lasted for three days
Synonyms: endure
last (v.)
continue to live and avoid dying;
how long can a person last without food and water?" "One crash victim died, the other lived
Synonyms: survive / live / live on / go / endure / hold up / hold out
4
last (adv.)
most recently;
I saw him last in London
last (adv.)
the item at the end;
last, I'll discuss family values
Synonyms: lastly / in conclusion / finally
From wordnet.princeton.edu