c. 1300, "supply of salt pork, bacon, and other meats," later in reference to the room for processing and storing such (late 14c.), from Anglo-French larder, Old French lardier "tub for bacon, place for meats," from Medieval Latin lardarium "a room for meats," from Latin lardum "lard, bacon" (see lard (n.)).
Meaning "department of the royal household or of a monastic house in charge of stored meats" is mid-15c. Figurative use, in reference to a "storehouse" of anything, is by 1620s. Surname Lardner "person in charge of a larder" is attested from mid-12c., from Middle English lardyner, from Medieval Latin lardenarius "steward."