Etymology
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Words related to judge

just (adj.)

late 14c., "morally upright, righteous  in the eyes of God" ("Now chiefly as a Biblical archaism" - OED); also "equitable, fair, impartial in one's dealings;" also "fitting, proper, conforming to standards or rules;" also "justifiable, reasonable;" from Old French juste "just, righteous; sincere" (12c.) and directly from Latin iustus "upright, righteous, equitable; in accordance with law, lawful; true, proper; perfect, complete" (source also of Spanish and Portuguese justo, Italian giusto), from ius "a right," especially "legal right, law" (see jurist; from Latin ius also come English jury (n.), injury, etc.).

From c. 1400 as "right-minded, good in intention;" from early 15c. as "legal, lawful, right in law." Also "exact, precise; marked or characterized by precision; having correct dimensions" (late 14c.); of narrations, calculations, etc., "accurate, correct" (early 15c.). The sense in music, "harmonically pure, correct, and exact" is by 1850.

The more mundane Latin law-word lex covered specific laws as opposed to the body of laws. The noun meaning "righteous person or persons; Christ" is from late 14c. (The neuter adjective in Latin was used as a noun, iustum, "what is right or just").

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*deik- 
Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to show," also "pronounce solemnly," "also in derivatives referring to the directing of words or objects" [Watkins].

It forms all or part of: abdicate; abdication; addict; adjudge; apodictic; avenge; benediction; betoken; condition; contradict; contradiction; dedicate; deictic; deixis; dictate; diction; dictionary; dictum; digit; disk; ditto; ditty; edict; Eurydice; index; indicate; indication; indict; indiction; indictive; indite; interdict; judge; judicial; juridical; jurisdiction; malediction; malison; paradigm; policy (n.2) "written insurance agreement;" preach; predicament; predicate; predict; prejudice; revenge; soi-disant; syndic; teach; tetchy; theodicy; toe; token; valediction; vendetta; verdict; veridical; vindicate; vindication; voir dire.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit dic- "point out, show;" Greek deiknynai "to show, to prove," dike "custom, usage;" Latin dicere "speak, tell, say," digitus "finger," Old High German zeigon, German zeigen "to show," Old English teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach."
doom (n.)

Middle English doome, from Old English dom "a law, statute, decree; administration of justice, judgment; justice, equity, righteousness," from Proto-Germanic *domaz (source also of Old Saxon and Old Frisian dom, Old Norse domr, Old High German tuom "judgment, decree," Gothic doms "discernment, distinction"), perhaps from PIE root *dhe- "to set, place, put, do" (source also of Sanskrit dhaman- "law," Greek themis "law," Lithuanian domė "attention").

Originally in a neutral sense but sometimes also "a decision determining fate or fortune, irrevocable destiny." A book of laws in Old English was a dombec. Modern adverse sense of "fate, ruin, destruction" begins early 14c. and is general after c. 1600, from doomsday and the finality of the Christian Judgment. Crack of doom is the last trump, the signal for the dissolution of all things.

adjudge (v.)
late 14c., ajuge, "to make a judicial decision, decide by judicial opinion," from Old French ajugier "to judge, pass judgment on" (Modern French adjuger, the -d- was restored 14c. and English followed suit by 16c.), from Latin adiudicare "grant or award as a judge," from ad "to" (see ad-) + iudicare "to judge," which is related to iudicem "a judge" (see judge (n.)). Sense of "have an opinion" is from c. 1400. Related: Adjudged; adjudging.
hoosegow (n.)
"jail," 1911, western U.S., probably from mispronunciation of Mexican Spanish juzgao "tribunal, court," from juzgar "to judge," used as a noun, from Latin iudicare "to judge," which is related to iudicem (see judge (n.)).
judgeship (n.)
1670s, from judge (n.) + -ship.
judicable (adj.)
1640s, from Late Latin iudicabilis "that can be judged," from iudicare "to judge," which is related to iudicem "a judge" (see judge (n.)).
judication (n.)

1620s, "action of judging," from Latin iudicationem (nominative iudicatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of iudicare "to judge," related to iudicem "a judge" (see judge (n.)).

judicative (adj.)
"having the ability to judge or form opinions," 1640s, from Latin iudicat-, past participle stem of iudicare "to judge," which is related to iudicem "a judge" (see judge (n.)) + -ive.
judicatory (n.)
"court of judicature," 1570s, from noun use of Late Latin iudicatorius "judicial, pertaining to judging," from iudicat-, past participle stem of Latin iudicare "to judge," related to iudicem "a judge" (see judge (n.)). As an adjective, 1640s, from French judicatoire.