Etymology
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Words related to jelly

*gel- 

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "cold; to freeze." 

It forms all or part of: chill; cold; congeal; cool; gel; gelatine; gelatinous; gelato; gelid; glace; glacial; glaciate; glaciation; glacier; glaciology; glacis; jell; jelly.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin gelare "to freeze," gelu "frost," glacies "ice;" Old English cald "cold, cool," German kalt.

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jellied (adj.)
1590s, "of the consistency of jelly;" 1895, sweetened with jelly; past-participle adjective from jelly (v.).
jell (v.)
"assume the consistence of jelly," 1869, American English, probably a back-formation of jelly (n.). Related: Jelled; jelling. Figurative sense is first attested 1908. Middle English had gelen "congeal," but it disappeared after 15c.
jellybean (n.)

"small bean-shaped sugar candy with a firm shell and a thick gel interior," 1905, from jelly (n.) + bean (n.). So called for its shape. Soon used in U.S. slang for "stupid person," probably encouraged by the slang sense of bean as "head."

jellyfish (n.)
also jelly-fish, popular name of the medusa and similar sea-creatures, 1796, from jelly (n.) + fish (n.). So called for its soft structure. Figuratively, "person of weak character," 1883. Earlier it had been used of a type of actual fish (1707).
jellyroll (n.)
also jelly-roll, "cylindrical cake containing jelly or jam," 1873, from jelly (n.) + roll (n.). As slang for "vagina; sexual intercourse" it dates from 1914 ("St. Louis Blues").