Words related to ire

err (v.)

c. 1300, from Old French errer "go astray, lose one's way; make a mistake; transgress," from Latin errare "wander, go astray," figuratively "be in error," from PIE root *ers- (1) "be in motion, wander around" (source also of Sanskrit arsati "flows;" Old English ierre "angry; straying;" Old Frisian ire "angry;" Old High German irri "angry," irron "astray;" Gothic airziþa "error; deception;" the Germanic words reflecting the notion of anger as a "straying" from normal composure). Related: Erred; erring.


Greek god of war in all its violence, brutality, confusion, and destruction; identified by Romans with their Mars, from Greek Arēs, literally "injurer, destroyer," from arē "bane, ruin," and perhaps cognate with Sanskrit irasya "ill-will" (see ire).


evil spirit, prince of demons, from Latin Asmodaeus, from Greek Asmodaios, from Talmudic Hebrew Ashmeday, from Avestan Aeshma-dæva, "Aeshma the deceitful," from aeshma "anger" (from PIE *eismo-, suffixed form of root *eis- (1), found in words denoting passion; see ire) + daeva- "spirit, demon" (from PIE *deiwos "god," from root *dyeu- "to shine," in derivatives "sky, heaven, god").

Dies Irae 

literally "day of wrath," first words of Latin hymn of Last Judgment, attributed to Thomas of Celano (c. 1250). See diurnal + ire.

estrus (n.)

1850, "frenzied passion," from Latin oestrus "frenzy, gadfly," from Greek oistros "gadfly; breeze; sting; anything which makes one mad, mad impulse," perhaps from a PIE *eis- (1), forming words denoting passion (see ire). First attested 1890 with specific meaning "rut in animals, sexual heat." Earliest use in English (1690s) was for "a gadfly." Related: Estrous (1900).

hierarchy (n.)
Origin and meaning of hierarchy

late 14c., jerarchie, ierarchie, "rank in the sacred order; one of the three divisions of the nine orders of angels;" loosely, "rule, dominion," from Old French ierarchie (14c., Modern French hiérarchie), from Medieval Latin hierarchia "ranked division of angels" (in the system of Dionysius the Areopagite), from Greek hierarkhia "rule of a high priest," from hierarkhes "high priest, leader of sacred rites," from ta hiera "the sacred rites" (neuter plural of hieros "sacred;" see ire) + arkhein "to lead, rule" (see archon). Sense of "ranked organization of persons or things" first recorded 1610s, initially of clergy, sense probably influenced by higher.

hieratic (adj.)

"pertaining to sacred things," 1660s, from Latin hieraticus, from Greek hieratikos "pertaining to a priest or his office, priestly, devoted to sacred purposes," from hierateia "priesthood," from hiereus "priest," from hieros "sacred, holy, hallowed; superhuman, mighty; divine" (see ire). Related: Hieratical (1650s).

hierocracy (n.)

"rule or government by priests," 1794, from hiero-, from Greek hieros "sacred, holy, divine" (see ire) + -cracy "rule or government by." Related: Hierocratic.

hieroglyphic (adj.)

1580s, "of the nature of Egyptian monumental writing," from Late Latin hieroglyphicus, from Greek hieroglyphikos "hieroglyphic; of Egyptian writing," from hieros "sacred" (see ire) + glyphē "carving," from glyphein "to carve" (from PIE root *gleubh- "to tear apart, cleave").

Plutarch began the custom of using the adjective (ta hieroglyphika) as a noun in reference to the Egyptian way of writing. The noun use of hieroglyphic in English dates to 1580s (hieroglyphics). Related: Hieroglyphical; hieroglyphically.

hierophant (n.)

"expounder of sacred mysteries," 1670s, from Late Latin hierophantes, from Greek hierophantes "one who teaches the rites of sacrifice and worship," literally "one who shows sacred things," from hieros "sacred," from PIE root *eis-, forming words denoting passion (see ire) + phainein "to reveal, bring to light" (from PIE root *bha- (1) "to shine"). In modern use, "expounder of esoteric doctrines," from 1822.