Etymology
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insurgent (n.)

"one who rises in revolt" against a government or its laws, 1745, from Latin insurgentem (nominative insurgens), present participle of insurgere "rise up, lift oneself; rise against; stand high, gather force," from in- "against," or here perhaps merely intensive, + surgere "to rise" (see surge (n.)).

An obsolete verb insurge (from French insurger) "to rise in opposition or insurrection" was common 16c. For verb forms 19c. writers sometimes turned to insurrectionize or insurrect.

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Definitions of insurgent
1
insurgent (n.)
a person who takes part in an armed rebellion against the constituted authority (especially in the hope of improving conditions);
Synonyms: insurrectionist / freedom fighter / rebel
insurgent (n.)
a member of an irregular armed force that fights a stronger force by sabotage and harassment;
2
insurgent (adj.)
in opposition to a civil authority or government;
Synonyms: seditious / subversive
From wordnet.princeton.edu