Etymology
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inside (n.)

late 14c., ynneside "interior part (of the body)," compound of in (prep.) + side (n.). General sense "inner side or part (of anything)" is from c. 1500.

The adjective sense "being on the inside" is from 1610s, from the noun. It began to be used in slang c. 1900 in reference to the supposed real facts or situation that only an insider would know. Inside man is from 1911 (originally in reference to workers used by management to sniff out union activity); inside job "robbery, espionage, etc., committed by or with the help of a resident or servant of a place" is attested by 1887, American English (also, late 19c., early 20c., "indoors work").

The figurative inside track "advantage" (1854) however is a metaphor from horse racing (1830); inside lanes are shorter than the outer ones on a curved track. Adverbial use in American English inside of (in reference to time) is from 1839.

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Definitions of inside
1
inside (adv.)
within a building;
in winter we play inside
Synonyms: indoors
inside (adv.)
on the inside;
inside, the car is a mess
Synonyms: within
inside (adv.)
with respect to private feelings;
Synonyms: inwardly
inside (adv.)
in reality;
Synonyms: at heart / at bottom / deep down / in spite of appearance
2
inside (adj.)
being or applying to the inside of a building;
an inside wall
inside (adj.)
relating to or being on the side closer to the center or within a defined space;
inside out
he reached into his inside jacket pocket
an inside pitch is between home plate and the batter
inside (adj.)
confined to an exclusive group;
inside information
Synonyms: inner / privileged
inside (adj.)
away from the outer edge;
the inside lane
3
inside (n.)
the region that is inside of something;
Synonyms: interior
inside (n.)
the inner or enclosed surface of something;
Synonyms: interior
From wordnet.princeton.edu