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inflation (n.)

mid-14c., "swelling caused by gathering of 'wind' in the body; flatulence," also, figuratively, "outbursts of pride," from Latin inflationem (nominative inflatio) "a puffing up, a blowing into; flatulence," noun of action from past participle stem of inflare "blow into, puff up," figuratively "inspire, encourage," from in- "into" (from PIE root *en "in") + flare "to blow" (from PIE root *bhle- "to blow").

Meaning "action of inflating with air or gas" is from c. 1600. Monetary sense of "enlargement of prices" (originally by an increase in the amount of money in circulation) first recorded 1838 in American English.

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Definitions of inflation from WordNet

inflation (n.)
a general and progressive increase in prices;
in inflation everything gets more valuable except money
Synonyms: rising prices
inflation (n.)
(cosmology) a brief exponential expansion of the universe (faster than the speed of light) postulated to have occurred shortly after the big bang;
inflation (n.)
lack of elegance as a consequence of being pompous and puffed up with vanity;
Synonyms: ostentation / ostentatiousness / pomposity / pompousness / pretentiousness / puffiness / splashiness
inflation (n.)
the act of filling something with air;
From wordnet.princeton.edu