Etymology
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incumbent (n.)

early 15c., "person holding a church position," from Medieval Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens) "holder of a church position," noun use of present participle of incumbere "to obtain or possess," from Latin incumbere "recline on," figuratively "apply oneself to," from in- "on" (from PIE root *en "in") + -cumbere "lie down," related to cubare "to lie" (see cubicle). Extended to holders of any office from 1670s.

incumbent (adj.)

1560s, in relation to duties or obligations, from Medieval Latin incumbentem (nominative incumbens), present participle of incumbere (see incumbent (n.)). The literal, physical sense "lying or resting on something" is rare in English and first attested 1620s.

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Definitions of incumbent
1
incumbent (adj.)
lying or leaning on something else;
an incumbent geological formation
incumbent (adj.)
necessary (for someone) as a duty or responsibility; morally binding;
it is incumbent on them to pay their own debts
incumbent (adj.)
currently holding an office;
the incumbent governor
2
incumbent (n.)
the official who holds an office;
Synonyms: officeholder
From wordnet.princeton.edu